It is evident that India’s democracy is political party dominated. The political parties are driving the wheel of its constitution as ruler or as opponent. The political parties are the organs of its residents because the residents elect their representatives hierarchically from lower to upper houses. According to the acquisition of wealth and money, the residents of India are polarized as privileged classes and underprivileged classes. Majority of the underprivileged classes are poor, less educated, deprived and backward. The government has renamed it as bottom of the pyramid or the people living below poverty line and it is a demarcation line or a line of control of the rich and poor. According to the strict provision of the Indian constitution, the democratic government considers the above as indicator of country’s backwardness.
The government works for equity and justice of its residents belonging to the bottom of the pyramid. Therefore, it designs and takes different welfare, social service and social security measures to up-lift this section. Beside the reservation for this section in different civic area, it has taken measures i.e. food security (Rice at Rs.2/- per kg, 100 days job guarantee under MGNEGRA, different Aabash Yojana, Health Insurance and so forth). Every new government takes some new measures during its 5-years term (tentatively). From India’s independence there have been so many schemes started, but these remedies have not successfully met the target because the number of population under below poverty line is in increasing rate.
The reasons are due to highly political domination of selection and distribution of the beneficiaries of different schemes. The political party (in the rule) always prefers and follows the criteria of party supporters. These schemes are used as tools of gaining the captive vote. Rather, it is publicized if a resident votes to the party; he/she would be rewarded with the benefits of the schemes for poor. The political party’s exploitation is selection of the appropriate beneficiaries and it is the prime strategic failure of almost every scheme. These schemes for poor are a trump card of political gain (winning factor in an election). This is the discrepancy of the Indian democracy.
A survey had been carried out in a community development block of East Midnapore district of West Bengal to assess the nature of beneficiaries of different schemes for the BPL. It had been gravitated that about 42% of the BPL card holders are well-off, and they do not fall anyhow into the BPL category. They take rice weekly at Rs.2/- per kg. from their ration shop (fair price shop) and they sell it in the same market at Rs.18/- per kg. It is their weekly earning. These populations are supporters of a party political party. On the other hand, about 28% of the population belonging to the BPL in real sense (they are land less or small farmers and daily wages earners) are APL card holders. Secondly, it had been studied that about 29% of the beneficiaries of the Abash Yogana have their well-built (pakka) two-three storeyed building, and they are economically in better condition. They are rewarded due to their political affiliation to a political party, and they have mutually shared a portion of allotment of a fund of this scheme. They have built a go down, etc. for different purposes as proof of this scheme. It had been studied that the shelter of actual beneficiaries (about 23%) is out of scheme due to several hidden reasons. The study revealed that almost every scheme for BPL category was for APL(privilege class).
Thus, the political parties intentionally and desperately for the political gain use to polarize people in two – supporters and anti-supporters. The exploitation exists deeply in Indian democracy due to this polarization. Therefore, the schemes of democratic government have failed to accelerate human progress (BPL to APL) and the Human Development Index is right enough to alert India for its position(down ward). How long this exploitation would run? When our democratic government would free from political domination, we wait for this. We look for a transparent democratic government where non-supporters of a ruling political party would enjoy equal opportunity of the democracy.
The views and opinions expressed by the writer are personal and do not necessarily reflect the official position of VOM.
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